Почеци Качарева

Hungarian Villages Settled by Germans

Approximately 800 villages were founded in Hungary by German settlers from 1711 to 1750. These German settlers came from the regions known as Baden, Württemberg, Alsace, Lorraine, the Rhineland, Westphalia, Bavaria, and Swabia, as well as from other areas. Even though they came from various regions and spoke various dialects, the Hungarians called them Swabians, and the name came to be used in reference to all Germans who settled in the Danube valley.

 

Although there had been German emigration to Hungary prior to 1711, the expulsion of the Turks resulted in an organized settlement program sponsored by the Habsburgs. The Habsburgs had three aims: 1) fortify the land against invasion, 2) develop farm land, and 3) further the Roman Catholic religion in Eastern Europe. They offered Catholics of the southwest German states inducements such as free agricultural land, home sites, construction materials, livestock, and exemption from taxes for several years.

 

The colonization came to be known as "der Grosse Schwabenzug" or the "Great Swabian Trek." The majority of the migration took place in three phases which were named after their Habsburg sponsors:

1. The "Karolinische Ansiedlung," or Caroline colonization occurred from 1718 to 1737. Fifteen thousand German settlers from this colonization were killed in Turkish raids or died from bubonic plague. This migration was restricted to Roman Catholics.

2. The "Maria Theresianische Ansiedlung," or Maria Theresian colonization occurred from 1744-1772. Seventy five thousand German colonists rebuilt many of the settlements that were destroyed by the Turks. Again, this migration was restricted to Roman Catholics whose lives were filled with hard work.

3. The "Josephinische Ansiedlung," or Josephine colonization took place under Joseph II from 1782 to 1787. This phase consisted of approximately 60,000 new German settlers who increased the economic prosperity of the Hungarian farm land. This migration was open to Protestants as Emperor Josef II had granted freedom of religion in the Habsburg Empire by that time.

After 1789, the government-sponsored colonization was discontinued, but some settlers continued to arrive in Hungary until 1829, after which only those with 500 Guilders cash were allowed to migrate.

Many of these German families settled in the Batschka area of Hungary (Bacs-Bodrog County, West of Belgrade) in the following Hungarian villages:

Bulkes - official name Maglíc, Hungarian name Bulkesz, other variants Buljkes, Bulkess, Bulkeszi, Keszi. Earliest German settlement was in 1786. Location is now in the country of Yugoslavia near Palanka. The population in 1880 was 2,953. Churches: Evangelical Lutheran/Bánya diocese. Village name in FHL records is Bulkesz. FHL Census Microfilm: Bulkesz in 1828: 622963. Surnames settling in this village include: Bender, Biber, Burghard, Eidenmiller, Flemmer, Hoehn, and Lang.

Kleinker – official name Backo Dobro Polje, German variants: Kleinker, Kischker, Klein Keer, Hungarian variant Kiskér, other variants include Mali Ker, Pribicevicevo. Earliest German settlement was in 1787. Location is now in Yugoslavia near Kula. Population in 1880 was 2,848. Churches: Evangelical Lutheran/Bánya diocese. FHL Census Microfilm: Kis-Ker in 1828: 622965. Kleinker was the location of a prisoner camp for Germans held by Partisans during World War II. Surnames settling in this village include: Altheim, Anderst, Becker, Berg, Brechenmacher, Engelmann, Gärtner, Gerstheimer, Gruebele, Gutsche, Hätterle/Hetterle, Hättig, Herrmann, Hert, Hissung/Hussung, Hummann, Koenig, Kohler, Kreis, Krou--, Kundert, Lautenschlager, Litz, Losing, Martin, Mohr, Mönch, Nessel, Reittenbach, Schepp, Schlafmann, Schoepp, Schueler, Stroh, Weidmann, Wolf.

Milititsch – official name Srpski-Miletic, German variant Berauersheim, Hungarian variants Militics, Nemesmilitics, Ráczmilitics, other dialect variants include Svetozar Miletic, Rac-Milititsch, Srpski-Militic, Millitics. Earliest German settlement was in 1786. Churches: Roman Catholic/Kalocsa diocese. Milititsch is currently located in Yugoslavia near Sombor. The population in 1880 was 2,896. Village name in FHL records: Roman Catholic Church: Nemetmilitics or Racs Militics. Church records available at FHL: 1826 – 1895, 1826 – 1895; FHL Microfilm Nr.: 638204 - 638208 ,. 638188 – 638191; FHL Census Microfilm: Nemes Militics in 1828: 622966, FHL Census Microfilm: Ratz Milits in 1828: 622968. Milititsch was the location of a prisoner camp for Germans held by Partisans during World War II. Surnames settling in this village include: Gerber, Kussmaul, Lutz, Staub/Straub.

Neu-Werbass – official name Novi Vrbas, German variant Neu-Werbass, and Hungarian variant Ujverbász. Earliest German settlement was in 1784. Neu-Werbass is now located in Yugoslavia near Kula. Population is 1880 was 5,050. Churches: Roman Catholic/Kalocsa diocese, Evangelical Lutheran/Bánya diocese, Reformed/Dunnamellék diocese. Village name in FHL records is Ujverbasz, Church records are available at FHL for 1875-1895, FHL Microfilm # 639140. FHL Census Microfilm Neu Verbacz in 1828 is 622966. Surnames settling in this village include: Arnold, Bader, Becker, Bi(e)ber, Bitz, Daffe, Elsässer, Enzminger, Erbs, Freier, Frisch, Geissler, Germann, Gross, Hirsch, Hof(f)meister, Huther, Hütter. Klein, Köppel, Krammling, Lebert, Maier, Mengel, Moser, Nachtrieb, Nehlich, Nessel, Neu, Neubauer, Neumu(e)ller, Nuber, Oberländer, Ott, Pfaff, Reitz, Rohrbach, Schiffler, Schmidt, Schmoll, Steinmetz, Stolz, Uhl, Weber, Weingartner.

Sekitsch – official name Lovcenac, Hungarian dialect Szeghegy, other variants Winkelsberg, Szegegyhaz, and Sekics. Earliest German settlement was in 1786. Sekitsch is now located in Yugoslavia near Topola. Population in 1880 was 3,395. Churches: Evangelical Lutheran/Bánya diocese. Sekitsch was the location of a prisoner camp for Germans held by Partisans during WW II. FHL Census Microfilm: Szeghegy in 1828: 622968. Evangelical parish books said to be preserved in their entirety in the state office in the town. Surnames settling in this village include: Antoni, Bauer, Beck, Blatter, Fetzer, Germann, Geyer, Glaser, Harsch. Hepfer, Humann, Jung, Losing, Neiss, Neufer(t), Niethan, Oster, Reiser, Schmautz, Schmidt, Strasser, Stutzmann, Thomas, Wacker, Walter, Weber, Weingärtner.

Tscherwenka – official name Crvenka, German variants Rotweil, Hungarian name Cservenka, other variants Cervenka and Rot. Earliest German settlement was 1784. Location is now in the country of Yugoslavia near Kula. The population in 1880 was 7,025. Churches: Evangelical Lutheran/Bánya diocese, Reformed/Dunamellek diocese. FHL Census Microfilm: Cservenka in 1828: 622964. Surnames settling in this village include: Ammon, Becker, Bender, Biedermann, Bingenheimer, Bischof, Bretter, Brust, Daffe, Dobler, Eder, Fuchs, Führer, Geist, Hed(d)rich, Hussong, Kehl, Kiefer, Klein, Kniesel, Krieger, Laubenstein, Lorenz, Machedäus, Martin, Mayer, Meier, Muench, Munsch, Neubauer, Oster, Pflug, Reiss, Riegel, Rose, Ruppert, Sandmaier, Schaeffer, Schauer, Schlecht, Schock, Schuetz, Schütz, Stephann, Tann/Thom, Vollweiter, Weiz, Welker, Wilgang, Zechmeister.

Torschau – official name Torza, Hungarian name Torzsa and other variants: Savino, Selo, Torscha, Thorzateleke, and Tharcsa. The earliest German settlement was in 1784. The population in 1880 was 3,068. Torschau is now in Yugoslavia near Kula. Churches: Evangelical Lutheran/Bánya diocese, Reformed/Dunamellék diocese. Torschau was the location of a prisoner camp for Germans held by Partisans during WWII. FHL Census Microfilm: Torzsa in 1828: 622969. Surnames settling in this village include: Bauer, Bechtel, Bechtold, Beck, Becker, Berg, Bernhard, Bietz, Bischof(f), Bitlingmeyer, Blum, Brausch, Broeckel, Christmann, Dave/Dafe, Dietrich/Ditrich, Entzi/Entzy, Enzi/Enzy, Erhard, Faas, Faul, Fischer, Forsch, Frank, Frey, Frisch, Geissler, Gerhardt, Glasser, Gottfried, Haembach/Heimbach, Harish/Harich, Hederle, Herth, Himmerich, Himrich, Hirsch, Ilg, Jantasin/Jantassin, Jung, Kalmbach, Kappel, Kast, Kesslinger, Kirsch/Kersch, Kirschner, Klein, Kner(r), Konrad, Korell, Koschel, Kraus(s), Krysner/Krutzner, Kuhn, Laubenstein,, Litz, Maier, Maurer, Merz, Metzger, Michaeli, Niedan, Niethan, Nitan, Nonnenmann, Nuber, Orschit, Petri, Pfaff, Philippi, Rebmann, Reiss, Reitz, Roth, Schatz, Schell, Schlaht, Schlatin, Schlecht, Schmidt, Schmoll, Schneider, Simon, Speh/Spee, Steinmetz, Stelz/Stolz, Stolzin, Tasse/Taffe, Uhl, Vogel, Wacker, Wakerlin, Waller, Weber, Weingärtner, Weissgaerber, Weitz, Wilhelm, Will, Wirth, Ziegler, Zisch.

Some German families settled in the Banat area of Hungary in the following villages:

Franzfeld – official name Kacarevo, Kraljevicevo, Banatsko Kraljevicevo; Hungarian dialect Francfold, Ferencfalva, Ferenchalom. Franzfeld is currently located in Yugoslavia 10 km N of Pantschowa. Banat village founded in 1787 was mainly Evangelic. The population in 1921 was 4,450 (97.7% Germans). Some of the settlers continued their migration to the Ukrainian village of Franzfeld. Village name in FHL records: Franzfeld, Francfold, Ferencfalva. Church records available at FHL: Christenings 1793-1835, Marriages 1793-1835, Deaths 1793-1835; films also contain approx. 86 pages of christening records of original settlers. FHL Microfilm Nr. 1190286, 1190287. Franzfeld was the location of a prisoner camp for Germans held by Partisans during World War II. . Surnames settling in this village include: Allerdings, Baier, Blatter, Brandner, Erdmann, Frei(y), Kless, Kühfuss, Mayer, Schweinfort, Weber, Zimmer.

Liebling - official name, other variants include Liebling, Kedvencz, Bászt. Liebling was founded in 1786. Location is now in the country of Romania, 31 km SE of Temeswar. Population in 1910 was 4,351 (95.5% Germans). Liebling is one of the few Banat villages which is mainly Evangelic. Village name in FHL records is Liebling, Bászt. Church records are available at FHL: Christenings 1786-1857, Marriages 1787-1864, Deaths 1786-1857; Index of christenings 1858-1944. FHL microfilm # 1271554; Index 0488237: Surnames settling in this village include: Becker, Benz, Berret(h). Christman, Heer, Heber, Klein, Krauss, Maurer, Müller, Opp, Orschit, Ohlhausen, Schatz, Volk, and Weber.